Part 1: Not So Sweet: The Truth About Diabetes
The morning, It's the first thought on our minds. We go to bed at night. it's the last thought on our minds." This Roanoke County girl Peyton: "Shadow! lives every day with Type One diabetes. "Diabetes is not onl something we have to deal with everyday 24 hours a day, but then we have to deal with the misconception" Clearing up some of the myths about diabetes--- John Hardy: i aint stupid, i don't want to kill myself. What this guy did to say goodbye to insulin shots. Plus cutting-edge research from UVa Medical Center that could make life easier for type one diabetics. Diabetes Educator: What can we do to get more fresh vegetables And counting carbs- why some experts say there aren't any foods you have to elminate for good. Good evening, I'm Jean Jadhon. Thanks for joining us. Not So Sweet, The Truth About Diabetes. There's a good chance you or someone you know is diabetic. 29 millions Americans have diabetes. To understand the disease, you have to understand insulin. The pancreas in our bodies makes insulin. It's what carries glucose or sugar from the blood stream to our muscles for fuel. In Type One diabetics the body doesn't make any insulin. In Type Two diabetics the pancreas can't make enough. Either way it's a problem. Dr. d. James Bailey/ Endocrinologist: You have a lot of glucose in the bloodstream, but it can't get to the target organs. Insulin is the key that unlocks the door. You have to have it. You can have glucose in a blood vessel, and the vessel can course through a muscle, and it can't get into that muscle without insulin's help." There are two types of diabetes- Type One and Type Two. Type One is an autoimmune disorder. It usually occurs in younger people under 40 but onset can be at any age. The cause is not known. Type 2 is usually in older adults although doctors are seeing Type 2 being diagnosed in younger and younger patients. Three primary things cause Type 2 diabetes.. First, Dad and Mom; In other words, genetics, Second, Age. It's more likely to occur as you get older and third is your weight. Obesity is associated with an increased risk for Type 2 diabetes. Now we meet a Roanoke County nine year old who lives everyday, every hour with Type One Diabetes. mmmm- uh! (Smooches dog) Hey Baby. Like most nine year olds, Peyton Stepka has a lot of energy, and she plays more than one sport. Peyton Stepka: i played softball and soccer. Her favorite position? Peyton: Short stop- that's where i catch all the pop flies. She told me all about the new family puppy Shadow. Peyton: He has white tips on his paws and a white chest and a white chin. Jean: Does he wag his tail when he sees you? Peyton: Yeah and then he pees on the floor. laughter. Parents Tom and Andrea Stepka remember the day in 2011 when they realized soemthing wasn't right with their bubbly little girl. Tom: She was just drinking a lot of water. So they did what many [of us] parents would do, they went online. Tom Stepka: i just Googled child drinking a lot of water, and all of a sudden it was diabetes symptoms, drinking a lot of water, weight loss, getting up in the middle of the night to go to the bathroom, all these things and it was like .. she does that, she does that, she does that. And all of a sudden a light bulb went off- this is probably not good . Andrea Stepka: My dad was a Type One diabetc and so when we saw diabetes come up the first thing on Google i think that's when it really hit us. That was three years ago. Peyton spent four days in the hospital and life changed dramatically for the entire family. Andrea: We wake up in the morning, It's the first thought on our minds. We go to bed at night, It's the last thought on our minds We have to constantly communicate First thing we do when we wake up is to test her, to make sure she's okay. Tom: And we're constantly asking her how do you feel. Peyton how do you feel, right? Cause she knows how she feels. like when she feels low. She's right 95 percent of the time when she says I'm low. We test her and she's low. It's just a feeling she knows what it is now. Andrea: Everything she puts in her mouth, we have to count every single carb Andrea: i still wake up in the middle of the night at two in the morning, and i still test her in the middle of the night even though the doctor says not to. But i can't sleep but i do but just to make myself feel better. The life of a Type One diabetic, watching everything you eat, counting carbs, wearing an insulin pump- Peyton's is changed every three days- and carrying an emergency kit. This goes with us everywhere we go. It has supplies to test blood sugar and urine, candy in case her blood sugar is too low and an emergency dose of insulin. Andrea: We have sugar candy that we have to have with us at all times to help us bring her blood sugars back up if she's low. And then there are the finger pricks to test blood sugar- seven to eight times everyday. Peyton showed me her fingers--- Peyton: They're hard Her dad admits it's not always easy. Tom Stepka: Most days are really good but some days it's no fun not seeing all the other kids not doing it, right? Peyton: Uh huh. Tom: But you're a brave little girl aren't you? Peyton: Yea . Petyton says it's no so bad after you've done it awhile. Today though beating her younger brother Cole at checkers is her biggest concern. He won the first game. Jean: Are you going to challenge him to a rematch and crush him this time:? Peyton: Yea. While the Stepkas support research to find a cure, they also want to educate the public about Type One diabetes. Andrea: i would love people to know you cannot get Type One diabetes by eating sugar. That is a huge myth. Diabetes is not only something we have to deal with everyday 24 hours a day but then we have to deal with the misconception and that's the hard part. Children will say or their mommies will tell their children. she probably ate too much candy when she was little. which is completely false. No- Sugar and eating candy do not cause diabetes. However being overweight is a risk factor for type two. Here is a statistic: 10 percent of Americans have Type 2 diabetes. That's one in every ten people. Dr. d. James Bailey/ Endocrinologist: i see you're on Metformin. This is Keith Cruz's first visit to the endocrinologist. He may have diabetes. Keith Cruz/Patient: That's what i want to know, do i even have diabetes? i don't even know if i got it. Cruz tells the doc about his tingly feet. He has a family history, and admits he struggles with his weight- says he has a sweet tooth. Keith Cruz: i have an appetite just just ice cream. Ice cream, apple pie. (hahaha) Sweet Tea and the old fashioned Kool Aid. Dr. James Bailey is one busy guy. He squeezed in a meeting with us between a jam- packed schedule. Of the diabetics he sees, 90 percent are Type 2. As Americans become more overweight, the cases of Type 2 diabetes increase. Dr. d. James Bailey/ Endocrinologist: Right now it's about 10 percent of the adult population of the United States. By 2050 it's estimated that over 30 percent of adults will have Type 2 diabetes Can you believe that? Jean Jadhon/WDBJ7: Here's a scary fact: many people live with diabetes for years and don't know --- In fact the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports more than one fourth of the people who have diabetes have never been tested. Dr. Bailey: You can feel pretty well with blood sugars into the diabetic range. That's part of the problem- if your blood sugar is out of the normal range you could be doing damage to your organs and face greater complications down the line such as eye and kidney disease. Dr. Bailey's advice: Get checked especially if you're at high risk. Dr. Bailey: If you're overweight and you have a first degree relative mother, father, sister, brother that has Type 2 diabetes you need to get checked out the probablily that you have or will get diabetes is extremely high Dr. Bailey says a lot of people are afraid to find out they have diabetes, but the truth of the matter is there are many things you can do to delay diabetes or keep it under control. If you keep your weight down and remain active the probablility you'll be diagnosed goes down and if you are diagnosed, it would typically occur much later in life. Symptoms can vary from person to person- but the most common are excessive thirst and frequent urination. Increased hunger and weight loss, Feeling tired and a lack of concentration or interest are signs as well. Some of the most intense symproms are tingling or numbness in the hands or feet and blurred vision. People's first questions is always what can i eat and what can't i eat And while we're talking food, do you know which foods have the most carbs? The answer may surprise
Seeing glucose through the skin
Director of the optical imaging laboratory at Washington University in St Louis, US, Lihong Wang comments that mid-IR spectroscopy is a valuable tool for biomedical optics but that due to the light being strongly absorbing, little light is scattered back for direct detection. ‘This creative work based on the “mirage” effect overcomes these issues using the total internal reflection of a visible light beam. Moreover, the solid internal reflection element facilitates optical alignment and measurement.’
In the future the technique could make a difference in fields such as spectral histopathology and spectral cytopathology for quantitative cancer diagnosis. It could even be used in home care, though in order for this to happen the size and price of the laser source needs to be reduced.
‘Although there is still much work to do, from our part and from the QCL industry, we are optimistic that within a few years this kind of detector will be the core of a non-invasive glucose system,’ says Pleitez.